Merchant And Trade: This special issue discusses the nature of contemporary cross-regional Asian interactions taking place in the realm of trade. It deals with the experiences, activities and stories of commodity traders whose life journeys cross Asia and reach China. The contributors are based on the idea of a “globalization from below” which encompasses small-scale operations, the informal economy, ethnic and diasporic networks and international migrants. Reflecting historically on the nature of “globalization from below” and the identities it fosters, the articles further acknowledge the earliest and latest histories of communities, networks and individuals active in long-distance trade.
In this way, they also draw attention to how these actors can often belong to specific communities and networks that have been instrumental in connecting different parts of Asia with each other over a period of time that extends well beyond the era of neoliberalism. Exploring “globalization from below” from a historical perspective highlights the analytical value of recognizing the varying and intersecting levels at which historical processes are visible in the ways, practices, and strategies of “bottom-up” globalization. range “.
Such an effort is important because it challenges assumptions that legality and volume are still the most useful concepts for comparing and understanding different types of businesses.
Charlotte’s latest rooftop bar isn’t a small side area in a building with room to spare; It’s a great full-service bar with its own aesthetic. Instead of removing the decor of the Kimpton Tryon Park Hotel below and placing it there in an attempt to create some unity, Merchant & Trade kicks off with its own style: a refreshing change of pace from the many bars on the roof trying too hard to imitate their owners.
Large windows allow guests to gaze out over the city from all angles, while the light honey-colored indoor bar provides a nice contrast to the dark wood finishes and chairs. A closed fireplace separates the bar from a cozy indoor lounge, which opens onto the lawn and outdoor terrace. Each part of Merchant & Trade feels distinct in a way that still maintains its modern and cohesive look.
Separate exclusive bar areas ensure guests of all kinds will find something to enjoy, whether dancing, lounging or mingling over small plates and craft cocktails, which will be the focal point of the bar. Unlike the Italian-inspired restaurant on the ground floor of the hotel, which seeks to balance its full meals with its drinks menu, Merchant & Trade emphasizes its cocktail services and craft beers, while allowing small plates of American style cuisine to combine with drinks. . ‘ strong flavors.
Is the State necessary for the development of international trade? Conventional wisdom thinks so. According to this wisdom, private international trade would wither without intergovernmental treaties, state courts dealing with international affairs, and state-designed legal practices for international traders. Some commentators have gone so far as to suggest that a global legal system is necessary to ensure the continued growth of international trade.
However, private parties have overcome these problems, without the government. International trade first flourished under a private international legal system called lex mercatoria, or commercial law. It continues to thrive in private legal arrangements today.
Medieval international merchants used the private system of international trade governance of lex mercatoria instead of government for several reasons. First, they wanted a speedy settlement of disputes. Disrupting business to resolve contractual disagreements was costly. The Law Merchant minimized costs by avoiding the formality of state court proceedings.
According to Leon Trakman’s The Law Merchant: The Evolution of Commercial Law, the commercial courts’ flexible evidentiary rules, “oral proceedings, informal testimony from witnesses, and unwritten judicial decision-making” have expedited the legal process for time-pressed international traders.
The Merchant of Law has further reduced the time needed to resolve disputes by simplifying the process of international trade, limiting the types of disputes that may require resolution. For example, the system exempted agents from having to obtain formal authorization from their principals to transact with third parties, thus eliminating entirely a major source of potential commercial disputes.
The Merchant of Law also dispensed with the need for formal notarization to transfer debts between parties. This has reduced the cost of international trade transactions and excluded another important locus of potential contractual conflict.
Merchants could not rely on government legal systems for this purpose. Governments in the 11th and 12th centuries were normally unwilling to adjudicate trade agreements made in foreign countries. Even if they had been, it is difficult to see how medieval merchants could have used state courts to settle their disputes. Governments of this era often did not honor contracts that involved interest payments. This posed a significant problem for international traders as they made extensive use of credit agreements.
Common law courts of the time did not even allow books of account as evidence in commercial disputes. This also posed a major problem for international traders as they relied heavily on these accounts.
Moreover, the scope of the authority of national governments in the 11th and 12th centuries was extremely limited. Rulers could not yet reach individuals outside the territory they directly controlled. Thus, their ability to enforce decisions made by state courts was almost non-existent.
Contemporary international commerce continues to rely heavily on the law of commerce to govern private international commerce. A similar set of international legal customs – the successor to the private legal rules of the medieval lex mercatoria – provides the basis for the settlement of contemporary international disputes.
Instead of the “dusty courts of medieval merchants”, the disputes of modern international traders are resolved by arbitrators who work for private associations such as the International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC).
Almost all modern international commercial contracts contain clauses specifying the use of these associations in the event of contractual disagreements. In addition to choosing an arbitration forum, modern international traders choose the law they want the association to apply to their case, which can range from the domestic law of any country to international trade custom. International traders can even choose the identity of particular arbitrators who will hear their case.
The conclusion examines the significance of the decline of the Company of Merchant Adventurers in light of the wider structural changes that English overseas trade underwent in the early modern period. He argues that, although the Company of Merchant Adventurers cannot be directly associated with a pre-capitalist trading order rendered moot by the rise of capitalism, the story of the Company’s decline sheds light on a process of trade restructuring that has implied the collapse of certain borders, geographical and professional, and the possibility of new synergies.
These changes have implications on the role and career of the overseas merchant, and on the place of merchant companies in the structuring of access to foreign trade.
The survival of merchant enterprises depended on their ability to attract and welcome new members and retain their loyalty, as well as to survive outside attacks. Changes within the ranks of the Merchant Venturers made this increasingly difficult, and the Company’s inability to maintain its privileges was partly a consequence of the dissolution of the social system of its trade.
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